Egyptian Mythology


Egypt consists of two parts; Upper Egypt (Red Land)and Lower Egypt (Black Land).  The Red Land is desert and the Black Land has fertile soil.  Today 99% of the population live in the area known as the Black Land.  In 3000 BC when the Pharaoh Menes united the two lands, the belief of unity and order was established as part of the religious beliefs.

Ptah creates everything by saying a word to bring it into form. All things are created this way. The Old Kingdom gods Horus and Set struggle for power over Egypt, Geb (the earth-god) mediates the conflict. Initially Geb divides the country betweenthe two gods, but then decides to give everything to Horus. The pharaoh Menes is Horus in the flesh.

In the Old Kingdom the Aten is the same as the Ptah and he creates air and moisture (Shu and Tefnut). Shu and Tefnut then make Geb (earth) and Nut (sky) .  Geb and Nut are the parents of Osiris, Isis, Nepthys and Set. These four gods make the universe. They later helped humans in their lives and into the afterlife.

Osiris represents the dead king who is succeeded by the living ruler, who is Horus on earth.  Isis is the wife of Osiris. She and her sister Nepthys ressurrected her dead husband after he was murdered by his brother Set. Horus the son of Isis and Osiris gets revenge on Set. 

The mythology of the New Kingdom named the god Amon-Re the creator instead of the god Atum.

The title pharaoh was given to the kings of Egypt. The word pharaoh comes from the Egyptian word meaning “royal palace”. Egyptian kings were thought to be the living god Horus. Great tombs were built to help the survival of the king's influence after his death. During the New Kingdom era the belief had changed, and there was a distinction between the individual king and the god Horus.

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