Saqqara & Dahsure
Saqqara, the City of the Dead, is the oldest ancient Egyptian cemetery. It lays in a desert plateau, southwest of Cairo in the city of Memphis, the capital of Egypt during the Old Kingdom. Saqqara is filled with tombs which lie beneath all the heaped mounds. In Saqqara and Dahsure we will find various Pyramids that will show us how each of them played a role in building the Great Pyramids of Giza. For example, the Bent Pyramid and Red Pyramid.
The Step Pyramid is the first freestanding stone building in history. It was designed by the great architect Imhotep for King Zoser. He wanted to build for his king a unique tomb, something that had never been erected before. The first project of one flat rectangular structure was changed to one of six steps, one on top of the other, from whence it bears the name of the Step Pyramid.
The Red Pyramid is one of the unique pyramids in Egypt. It was the first successful attempt to build a smooth surface pyramid by King Snefru. King Snefru had two prior attempts with the Bent Pyramid and the Meidum Pyramid, but unfortunately both of them failed. It is called the Red Pyramid due to the reddish/pinkish limestone used in its casing. It is also called the Northern or Shinning Pyramid. All three chambers in this pyramid have stepped ceilings. The ceiling's design is so strong that even till today, there are no cracks or structural problems even with some two million tones of stone above it. The first two chambers are at ground level, while a third chamber is higher. It is built within the masonry of the pyramid itself.